A sustainable fishery resource is harvested considering the viability or permanence of the population in the long term, but also the health of the marine ecosystem.
Thus, the ideal would be that the resource is part of a healthy, well-managed population and that it is harvested in a way that minimizes bycatch of other species, discarding, and the impact on the habitat.
When species are exploited without knowing their population status, when they are discarded due to lack of market and not reported, or when scientific recommendations on how much to extract and of what size are not followed, these resources can be overexploited and in some cases, collapse.
But not only should a sustainable fishery ensure the permanence of the population over time, but also the least possible damage to the species with which it interacts and to the habitat while fishing maneuvers are carried out.
For this purpose, there are selectivity devices that modify the fishing gear and allow the escape of certain species and small specimens that must remain in the population to reproduce.
There are also devices capable of avoiding the capture of groups with major conservation problems such as sharks and birds, mammals, and sea turtles.
There are also fishing gears that have a strong impact on the seabed, altering the habitat, while others have a minimal impact. This ecosystem vision of fisheries management also attempts to incorporate the social variable.
The aim is to ensure that these resources are extracted causing the least possible damage to the ecosystem, generating the greatest benefit for the people, and valuing the work of fishermen, considered one of the riskiest not only because of the conditions in which they work but also because of the economic uncertainty of the activity.
The vision of caring for the marine ecosystem is just beginning to be taken into account, and we should be more informed about it.